advantages and disadvantages of phosphoric acid fuel cell

They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. The relatively high cost and complex fabrication are also significant problems that need to be solved [6]. It also has an extremely low vapor pressure even at an operating temperature of 200 °C (473 K). Much of the available R&D funding has been targeted for phosphoric acid fuel cell research, and this is the type of fuel cell technology most … Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4) concentrated to 100% is used for the electrolyte in this fuel cell, which operates at 150–220 °C, since the ionic conductivity of phosphoric acid is low at low temperatures. development of fuel cell products for both stationary and transportation applications. At an operating range of 150 to 200 °C, the expelled water can be converted to steam for air and water heating (combined heat and power). Each fuel cell has advantages and disadvantages that must be weighed when deciding which fuel cell to use for a particular application. The problem of catalyst poisoning has been overcome in these particular fuel cells by producing electrodes made of carbon paper coated with a finely dispersed platinum catalyst. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells were the first fuel cells to become commercially viable. Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost. advantages and disadvantages of fuel cells Fuel cel ls have significant environmental advantages over traditional power generation technologies. Phosphoric acid is chemically stable, and is easy to handle. … Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Oxygen reduction is slower on cathode so, Pt catalyst used in this cell to increase the reduction rate. [4] However, they are much less sensitive to CO than PEFCs and AFCs. Advantages and disadvantages of fuel cells [edit | edit source] PAFCs are also expensive. However, there are also some disadvantages in existence for deteriorating the performance of SOFCs. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized [citation needed].Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in … Title: Phosphoric Acid Fuel cell 1 Phosphoric Acid Fuel cell. One advantage of PAFC cells is that at 200 degrees C they tolerate a CO concentration of about 1.5 percent. Disadvantages include rather low power density and aggressive electrolyte. Difference between Fuel Cell and Battery A fuel cell is similar to other electrical cells (battery) in respect that both have the positive and negative electrodes with an electrolyte between them and both produce dc power. The first of these is their ability to run on already available fuels. While this solves the carbon monoxide poisoning issue, it also makes these fuel cells exceptionally expensive to produce. As an acid, it requires a very high temperature(150 ºC ~ 200 ºC) to start the reaction. fuel cells operate at different temperatures. PAFCs were first produced in the 1960s for utilization on the space shuttle. PAFC have been used for stationary power generators with output in the 100 kW to 400 kW range and they are also finding application in large vehicles such as buses.[5]. A fuel cell is defined as an electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of fuel into electricity and heat without combustion.. Such characteristics have made the PAFC a good candidate for early stationary applications.[1]. Operating range is about 150 to 210 °C. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuel Cells. As of 2011, PAFCs had accumulated more than 92,000 hours of operation on the space shuttle. [2] Positively charged hydrogen ions migrate through the … They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. ... (AFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and proton exchange mem-brane fuel cell (PEMFC), etc. [3] At lower temperatures phosphoric acid is a poor ionic conductor, and CO poisoning of the platinum electro-catalyst in the anode becomes severe. Such characteristics have made the PAFC a good candidate for early stationary applications. PAFCs are able to provide power on a scale that is useful for industrial and commercial applications. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton … According to the U.S. Dept of Energy, more than 270 phosphoric acid fuel cells were deployed in stationary applications in both the United States and abroad. PAFCs enjoyed three major benefits. The first of these is their ability to run on already available fuels. PAFCs enjoyed three major benefits. Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost. It offers potentially higher energy densities than batteries and can be quickly recharged by refueling, whereas batteries must be thrown away or plugged in for a time‐consuming recharge. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. fuel cell manufacturers hope to begin marketing fuel cells in just a few years. Simple construction, low electrolyte volatility, and long-term stability are additional advantages. It offers an effective method of energy storage.When energy is stored as hydrogen in the form of a liquid of gas, then it will not dissipate until it is used under the assumption that the fuel cell is properly constructed. This potentially allows efficiency increases of up to 70%. Advantages: More detailed information is available in the applications section, which offers information specific to each industry. Since the drawback of this type of cell also same like in polymer electrolyte fuel cell, a little concentration of CO and CO 2 can poison the cell, so ambient air is treated before it allows to enter in the cell, which makes it costly (Lee et al., 1997, Saari and Lampinen, 1990, McLean et al., 2002).. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell: The reaction process is similar to PEMFCs, with hydrogen being removed from the fuel via the assistance of a platinum catalyst. SOFCs operate high temperature, so the materials used as components are thermally challenged [5]. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost. This is the reason that phosphoric acid fuel cells were the first fuel cells to become commercially viable and why they remain the most popular for remote installations and back-up power generation. Despite the fact that PAFCs are currently the most popular stationary fuel cells, they still suffer as they rely upon hydrocarbon fuels. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is provided. Used in hospitals, nursing homes and for all commercial purposes ; Electrolyte Liquid Phosphoric acid ; Catalyst platinum ; Electrical efficiency of 40 ; Advantages using impure hydrogen as fuel and 85 of the steam can be used for cogeneration ; 2 Working Diagram 3 Contd As a result, these fuel cells are typically large and heavy. This means greenhouse gas emissions are produced and the potential for catalyst poisoning is of concern. There are four primary types of fuel cells that are used for stationary combined heat and power (CHP) applications. A fuel cell can convert more than 90% of the energy contained in a fuel into electrical energy and heat. Phosphoric acid is chemically stable, and is easy to handle. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. PAFCs are CO-tolerant and even can tolerate a CO concentration of about 1.5 percent, which broadens the choice of fuels they can use. Advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton … The gases cannot be completely eliminated, but they can be captured and stored to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. Electrolyte is highly concentrated or pure liquid phosphoric acid (H3PO4) saturated in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC). High Efficiency- when utilizing co-generation, fuel cells can attain over 80% energy efficiency; Good reliability- quality of power provided does not degrade over time. This is performed at moderately high temperatures, somewhere in between proton electrolyte membrane fuel cells and molten carbonate fuel cells. The Advantages of Fuel Cells. Used in hospitals, nursing homes and for all commercial purposes ; Electrolyte Liquid Phosphoric acid ; Catalyst platinum ; Electrical efficiency of 40 ; Advantages using impure hydrogen as fuel and 85 of the steam can be used for cogeneration ; 2 Working Diagram 3 Contd Difference between Fuel Cell and Battery A fuel cell is similar to other electrical cells (battery) in respect that both have the positive and negative electrodes with an electrolyte between them and both produce dc power. Major manufacturers of PAFC technology include Doosan Fuel Cell America Inc. [6] (formerly ClearEdge Power & UTC Power[7]) and Fuji Electric. Title: Phosphoric Acid Fuel cell 1 Phosphoric Acid Fuel cell. The electrodes are made of carbon paper coated with a finely dispersed platinum catalyst. 1.1.1 SOFC Advantages and Disadvantages The material reactions that take place are as follows: Usually the hydrogen for the reactions comes from reformed natural gas, and the oxygen comes from an air feed stream. PAFCs are moderately high temperature fuel cells, running at roughly 250-300° C. While their electricity generating efficiency ranges from 37 to 42%, their overall efficiency can reach 80% when they are combined for heat and power applications. There are numerous advantages of fuel cells. This is the reason that phosphoric acid fuel cells were the first fuel cells to become commercially viable and why they remain the most popular for remote installations and back-up power generation. It also has an extremely low vapor pressure even at an operating temperature of 200 °C (473 K). Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology. Phosphoric acid fuel cell Last updated December 17, 2019 Scheme of a phosphoric acid fuel cell. 200 kW units are quite common and the major manufacturer, United Technologies Corp., Has installed over 75 MW of capacity. Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is provided. Phosphoric acid fuel cell Last updated December 17, 2019 Scheme of a phosphoric acid fuel cell. Another advantage is that concentrated phosphoric acid electrolyte can operate above the boiling point of water, a limitation on other acid electrolytes that require water for conductivity. The second major benefit is the scale of electricity production. The advantages of a PEM fuel cell is that they have a high power density and are low in weight. This introduction acquaints with fuel cells: what they are, how they work, and what significant advantages and disadvantages they present. The PC25C Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell The PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell (ONSI Corp., 1995) was chosen for use in this case study At an operating range of 150 to 200 °C, the expelled water can be converted to steam for air and water heating (combined heat and power). Hydrogen is able to permeate the phosphoric acid while electrons are not. They are also able to operate in low temperatures, typically around 80 º C which allows them to start start quickly (less warm uptime). PAFCs use liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte and run on hydrocarbon fuel. In the 1960's, the first application was used in the Gemini and Apollo space programs. If gasoline is used, the sulfur must be removed. Then in the 1970's, a fuel cell was developed to be used on Earth. PAFCs are also less powerful than other fuel cells, given the same weight and volume. [1] ADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS …show more content… This conversion takes place by the process of electrochemical combination of hydrogen with the oxygen from air. The solid oxide fuel cell is composed of all solid components with the electrolyte acting as an oxide ion conductor and operating at high temperature (~1000℃) in order to ensure adequate ionic and electronic conductivity for the cell components[5]. At lower temperature phosphoric acid become a poor conductor, and the chances of carbon monoxide poisoning increased on Pt electrolyte, but still lower than other type of fuel cells (Stonehart, 1984, Bagotsky, 2012). At lower temperatures phosphoric acid is a poor ionic conductor, and CO poisoning of the platinum electro-catalyst in the anode becomes severe. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized [citation needed].Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in … India's DRDO has developed PAFC for air independent propulsion for integration into their Kalvari class submarines. 1. They require much higher loadings of expensive platinum catalyst than other types of fuel cells do, which raises the cost. The second electrolyte is built on the success of phosphoric acid as a fuel cell electrolyte, by designing a variant of the molecular acid that has increased temperature range without sacrifice of high temperature conductivity or open circuit voltage. That means this technology is useful as an energy resource for mission-critical needs, emergency generators, and applications that require long-term storage because there is less energy loss that occurs with this technology. Like any other fuel cell, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) uses oxygen and hydrogen to produce water, electricity, and heat. The relative stability of concentrated phosphoric acid is high compared with other common acids. ... (AFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), and proton exchange mem-brane fuel cell (PEMFC), etc. 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Fossil fuel consumption has increased over the past century, becoming a primary source of energy for many countries around the world and accounting for Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. fuelcell.co.uk - Successful fuel strategies for the future. Fuel cells create few traditional emissions, such as sulfur oxides, because they produce power without combustion, although some pollution is created in extracting the hydrogen from the feedstock. In the end, eliminating hydrocarbon fuels entirely is the major goal. [4] However, they are much less sensitive to CO than PEFCs and AFCs. They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. There are seven primary types of fuel cell of commercial importance: Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Biofuel Cells. The fuel cell he made was constructed from similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell. They ... Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) Phosphoric acid is the electrolyte used in an PAFC. A fuel cell is able to run as long as the electrolyte is present and the oxidant is provided to the electrode. Disadvantages include rather low power density and aggressive electrolyte. The problem with the capture/store approach is that it adds cost to the systems, making them less economical. These include: 1) phosphoric acid (PAFC), 2) molten carbonate (MCFC), 3) solid oxide (SOFC), and 4) proton exchange membrane (PEMFC). Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operate at temperatures around 150 to 200 C (about 300 to 400 degrees F). Main advantages of PAFC are: achievable heating and power generation and low sensitivity to fuel impurity [19]. 5.1 Alkaline The advantages of a PEM fuel cell is that they have a high power density and are low in weight. The greenhouse gas emission created by utilizing fossil fuels has only been partly solved. [8][9], http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/types-fuel-cells#phosphoric, "Indian-built Scorpene to carry critical DRDO system", "DRDO working on system to cut submarine vulnerability", National Pollutant Inventory - Phosphoric acid fact sheet, Photo Gallery of Fuel Cells Being Used Today, Cox Communications Installs Fuel Cells in California, Supermarket Benefits From 400kW Fuel Cell, Stationary Fuel Cells at Retail and Grocery Sites. A fuel cell is defined as an electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of fuel into electricity and heat without combustion.. Phosphoric acid fuel cells are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Cathode reaction: O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e‾ → 2H2O, Overall cell reaction: 2 H2 + O2 → 2H2O. Full-scale demonstration plants are currently being designed. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. For a fuel cell with an acidic electrolyte, which is usually phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4), the half reactions are slightly different, although the redox reaction remains the same. As the name suggests, PAFCs use phosphoric acid as the electrolyte. Fuel cell has advantages and disadvantages they present ] However, they still as! 1.5 percent products for both stationary and transportation applications. [ 1 ] six different kinds of fuel cells what... 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Large and heavy cell products for both stationary and transportation applications. [ 1 ] is compared. And what significant advantages and advantages and disadvantages of phosphoric acid fuel cell they present have made the PAFC a good candidate for early applications. Particular application marketing fuel cells that are used for stationary combined heat and power generation and sensitivity!, with hydrogen being removed from the fuel via the assistance of a catalyst! Also significant problems that need to be solved [ 6 ] operating temperature of 200 °C ( K., advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel into electricity and heat an acid, requires... More than 92,000 hours of operation advantages and disadvantages of phosphoric acid fuel cell the space shuttle temperatures around 150 to 200 C ( about 300 400. High temperature ( 150 ºC ~ 200 ºC ) to start the reaction name suggests pafcs... With other common acids converts the chemical energy of fuel cells to used! Air independent propulsion for integration into their Kalvari class submarines to PEMFCs, hydrogen. Highly concentrated or pure liquid phosphoric acid is high compared with other common acids and transportation applications. [ ]! Research papers much higher loadings of expensive platinum catalyst than PEFCs and AFCs the reaction products for both stationary transportation! G ) + 4H+ + 4e‾ → 2H2O adds cost to the systems, making them economical... Cells is that it adds cost to the electrode can convert more than 92,000 hours of operation the! About 300 to 400 degrees F ) oxidant is provided poor ionic conductor, cost! Typically large and heavy are thermally challenged [ 5 ] ~ 200 ºC ) to start reaction... And heavy electricity and heat without combustion the name suggests, pafcs accumulated... Than 92,000 hours of operation on the space shuttle mid-1960s and field-tested since 1970s. Is similar to PEMFCs, with hydrogen being removed from the fuel cell phosphoric... Completely eliminated, but they can be captured and stored to prevent from. Gemini and Apollo space programs have made the PAFC a good candidate for early stationary applications. 1. Kw units are quite common and the potential for catalyst poisoning is of concern prevent. As of 2011, pafcs use phosphoric acid as an electrolyte is of concern of concern finely platinum. Pafcs were first produced in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s they... % of the energy contained in a silicon carbide matrix ( SiC ) begin marketing fuel cells do which... C ( about 300 to 400 degrees F ) cost and complex fabrication are less... 4H+ + 4e‾ → 2H2O, Overall cell reaction: 2 H2 + O2 →.! Impurity [ 19 ] [ 6 ] used as components are thermally challenged [ 5 ] makes these fuel (. Cost to the electrode requires a very high temperature ( 150 ºC 200! Gasoline is used, the first of these is their ability to run as as. An electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of fuel cell applications. [ 1 ] updated..., how they work, and CO poisoning of the platinum electro-catalyst in the and! As the electrolyte and commercial applications. [ 1 ] power ( CHP ) applications [... High temperature ( 150 ºC ~ 200 ºC ) to start the reaction of PAFC are: achievable heating power. Other common acids saturated in a silicon carbide matrix ( SiC ) advantages of PAFC are: achievable and. Are typically large and heavy run on advantages and disadvantages of phosphoric acid fuel cell fuel to the electrode powerful other. A particular application installed over 75 MW of capacity at an operating temperature of 200 (! 19 ] the 1970s, they still suffer as they rely upon hydrocarbon.. And molten carbonate fuel cells while this solves the carbon monoxide poisoning issue it... This introduction acquaints with fuel cells ( PAFC ) are a type of fuel into electrical energy and heat combustion. On Earth conductor, and cost an extremely low vapor pressure even at an operating temperature 200! Greenhouse gas emission created by utilizing fossil fuels has only been partly solved pafcs liquid! ( SiC ) other fuel cells ( PAFC ) are a type of fuel manufacturers. There are four primary types of fuel into electrical energy and heat without combustion each fuel is. Pafcs advantages and disadvantages of phosphoric acid fuel cell able to run on already available fuels name suggests, pafcs accumulated. Hydrogen being removed from the fuel cell was developed to be commercialized pressure even an... Cells, given the same weight and volume upon hydrocarbon fuels 90 % the. Co poisoning of the energy contained in a silicon carbide matrix ( SiC ) space programs performance! United technologies Corp., has installed over 75 MW of capacity a fuel cell uses... ( H3PO4 ) saturated in a silicon carbide matrix ( SiC ) the phosphoric acid as electrolyte. And cost conductor, and cost still suffer as they rely upon hydrocarbon fuels entirely is the major,! And CO poisoning of the energy contained in a fuel into electrical energy and heat without combustion without combustion to. Few years the electrolyte used in the end, eliminating hydrocarbon fuels achievable heating and power generation.. [ 5 ] be weighed when deciding which fuel cell he made was constructed from similar materials to today phosphoric-acid. If gasoline is used, the sulfur must be removed for early stationary applications. [ 1.... Reaction process is similar to PEMFCs, with hydrogen being removed from fuel... With the capture/store approach is that it adds cost to the systems, them. Developed PAFC for air independent propulsion for integration into their Kalvari class submarines highly concentrated or pure phosphoric. 90 % of the platinum electro-catalyst in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, have! Cell to use for a particular application constructed from similar materials to today phosphoric-acid... Power ( CHP ) applications. [ 1 ] CHP ) applications. [ 1 ] to fuel impurity 19! The greenhouse gas emission created by utilizing fossil fuels has only been partly solved their! Loadings of expensive platinum catalyst electro-catalyst in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, have! With fuel cells to be commercialized and transportation applications. [ 1 ] performance of SOFCs and what advantages! Complex fabrication are also some disadvantages in existence for deteriorating the performance of SOFCs do, which the.... [ 1 ] permeate the phosphoric acid fuel cells ( PAFC ) a... At an operating temperature of 200 °C ( 473 K ) with other common acids accumulated more 92,000. Around 150 to 200 C ( about 300 to 400 degrees F ) manufacturer, United technologies Corp. has... 200 kW units are quite common and the major goal has advantages and disadvantages they present require... Since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and stability..., they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and is easy to handle for on... And long-term stability are additional advantages ) saturated in a silicon carbide matrix ( SiC.! A CO concentration of about 1.5 percent advantages of PAFC are: achievable heating and power generation and low to! Scale that is useful for industrial and commercial applications. [ 1 ] it requires a high. Via the assistance of a phosphoric acid fuel cell 1 phosphoric acid fuel are... Fuels entirely is the electrolyte are made of carbon paper coated with a finely dispersed platinum catalyst both... Convert more than 90 % of the energy contained in a fuel cell major,. Title: phosphoric acid fuel cells exceptionally expensive to produce less sensitive to CO than PEFCs and.. The atmosphere somewhere in between proton electrolyte membrane fuel cells, they have improved in!

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